After a kernel update, you find the start-up menu populated with extra lines related to all the old kernel versions plus the current one. To manage the start-up manager and safely remove old kernels you have to manually operate on it.
First of all you have to double-check what is the current kernel version.
Open a Terminal and type:
The result will be something similar to: 2.6.32-35-generic
Then you will go to the boot directory through the command:
cd /boot ls vmlinuz*
The next step will be to obtain more information about old kernel you have on our PC:
Now in the Terminal you have results similar to these:
vmlinuz-2.6.32-21-generic vmlinuz-2.6.32-25-generic vmlinuz-2.6.32-35-generic
As last step you have to remove all the old version of the kernel using this command:
sudo apt-get remove linux-image-X.X.XX-XX-generic
where “x” is the obsolete kernel version you want to purge. In my specific case the proper command line I used was:
sudo apt-get remove linux-image-2.6.32-21-generic linux-image-2.6.32-24-generic linux-image-2.6.32-25-generic linux-image-2.6.32-26-generic
Last but not least go to System –> Administration –> StartUp Manager (available for installation on Synaptics or on Ubuntu Software Center) and select your OS choice in the Default Operating System menu. That’s all!
After upgrading my Ubuntu 10.04 LTS I had an error window at every boot up session. The message advised me about:
Could not update ICEauthority file /home/username/.ICEauthority
ICEauthority is the Inter-Client Exchange (ICE) Protocol that allows authentication, negotiation, setting up and taking down connections between programs. In few words, if two programs have the same cookies, they will talk and exchange data through ICEauthority.
To fix this matter open the Terminal and type:
Then you find a line similar to this:
-rw——- 1 root root 35226 2011-10-06 00:24 .ICEauthority
This means that your profile (username on a Linux OS) is not allowed to manage ICEauthority and you have to gain full permission to solve the boot up problem:
sudo chown username:username ~/.ICEauthority
Where username is your user profile on Linux.
sudo chmod u+rw ~/.ICEauthority
To check if you succeeded, type again:
and this time you will find a line like this:
-rw——- 1 username username 35226 2011-10-06 00:24 .ICEauthority
If you installed Ubuntu and Windows at the same time, you probably noticed that when you start your computer you can choose what operating system to launch. The responsible software for this is usually the GRUB loader and its menu. Obviously, after you install Ubuntu, it is placed as the first option and if you do not explicitly choose Windows in a few seconds, Ubuntu will be started. But what if you want Windows as your default option? Here is how you change the order:
1. Launch a new Ubuntu Terminal (Applications, Accessories). Type in the following command:
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
This will create a backup of the GRUB configuration file.
2. Now open the file. We’ll do it with a new command:
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
You will be prompted for a password, after which a text editor will be launched. In most of the situations, the menu.lst file contains many comments. You have to search for a line that says
This should not be very far from the end of file. Here you will have to intervene. After a few lines you will the variable called ‘timeout’ and its value (10 by default). If you want to have more or less time available for choosing your operating system, change the 10 with what number you want.
So back to the boot sequence. Scroll through the file again until you find:
title Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.17-10-generic
There will be more titles. Count the order number of Windows, but start from 0. The value you choose should overwrite the default one. For example, if Windows is the 4th title in the list, you will need to type
Clonezilla-SysRescCD is something we have been looking for since months. In our Linux Page (in Spanish) we have posted a brief (full of links) review about this rescue Cd in its 1.3.0 version. Clonezilla-SysRescCD is a very interesting merge (multi boot CD) between Clonezilla and SystemRescueCD which allows you to solve many (better quite all, for what we read) “disasters”; that can be made by everyday pc users like us. Just to sum up the features contained in Clonezilla-SysRescCD we add some brief notes about the two different “parts”; contained in it. Clonezilla is a fast and reliable OpenSource clone system (OCS) which supports ext2, ext3, reiserfs, xfs, jfs, fat and ntfs partitions. On the other hand SystemRescueCD, based on a bootable Linux OS, allows you to repair your system and/or recover your data after a crash. We simulated some “disasters”; on an old Pentium4 (running Windows XP) and the results we obtained were substantially very positive.
Today, in our Linux page we post a review about BUM a powerful, graphic Boot-up Manager for Ubuntu. Using this light software you can modify and decide what programs run at startup. BUM is a very useful tool, precious especially when you notice that your Ubuntu boot is becoming slower than in the past. Initializing the Boot-up Manager is very simple and fast: recommended for the Linux beginners (like us)!
Yesterday a new version of Ubuntu (Feisty Fawn 7.04) has been released. This new version seems to be more powerful and enjoyable than the 6.10 and we hope it will actively contribute to spread the use of Linux. For people using Ubuntu 6.10, Ubuntu released simple and brief instructions to upgrade fast the OS.
In our Linux Page, we posted a brief tutorial about solving problems generated by an Ubuntu upgrade (this kind of problems is not common but unfortunately sometimes it happens..). The post, inspired some Italian blogs we found on the web, is very simple and effective and we hope it could be useful… in case of emergency. See you soon!
Today, in our Linux Page we posted a useful review about Ubuntu Windows Installer. This software solves many problems (and fears) you have when decide to install Ubuntu, Kubuntu or Xubuntu on your computer. Ubuntu Windows Installer manages all the steps during the installation and it also modifies the original hard disk partition due to have two different OS on your computer. Ubuntu Windows Installer is very easy to use and I consider it as one the best practical solution for Linux beginners. Try it.. and let us know your comments!