At first blush, you might be wondering why anyone would need to scan a Linux server for malware.
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It’s the perfect nightmare and everyone do all his best to avoid it but sooner or later it happens.
Loosing data from a hard disk or a USB device is more common than you can image and everyone has experienced it!
Windows has different commercial solutions available to recover data and partitions but, if you use Linux, you need something different.
The best solution I found for Linux is an old but current article by Lifehacker.au that I strongly recommend if you are experiencing this kind of problems and want to solve them.
Sooner or later, if you use Linux and you prefer Terminal to GUI you will stumble on this message:
Username is not in the sudoers file. This incident will be reported
The first thing to clarify is that the “incident” will never be reported outside your computer but in the auth.log file. But if you have previously configured your Linux OS to send these kind of logs to you by email, you receive an alert about.. your own activity with sudo…
In any case, to solve the above mentioned specific sudo matter, use Terminal and type:
sudo gedit /etc/sudoers
At this point the text file “sudoers” will be opened and you will be able to modify it using e.g. gedit.
Obviously you can use another text editor you prefer as, for example, nano. In this case the command will be:
sudo nano /etc/sudoers
Now you have to peer into the text and find the “#User privilege Specification” section and add the command:
your-username ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL
where ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL stands for: allow the specific user (your-username) to access all the terminals, as if he/she were any other user, and allow him/her to execute the full range of commands.
And you will obtain something similar to this:
# User privilege specification root ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL your-username ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL
Try it! (..if you need…)
dnf install yumex-dnf
Follow the instructions that appear on the screen and enjoy the new DNF GUI manager for Fedora 22.
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Everyday we use USB keys to transfer data without transmitting them through the t. The USB keys and portable disks are small, light and their data capacity allow us to move in privacy huge files. This idyll sometimes is broken by a fatal mistake: we unintentionally delete an important file. Normally, if we are smart we recover the erased file in the Trash but in other situations when we realize the mistake we had made is too late.
In this circumstances is very import to stop to use our USB key or portable disk till we are able to use a good software for data recovering. On Ubuntu you have a wise number of dedicated software that can do this job for you, the most powerful run on Terminal as testdisk, foremost, and scalpel but you can also use a “minimal GUI” software as PhotoRec.
PhotoRec is very intuitive to use and it is able to recover many data formats from jpeg to db. After you install it using Synaptic Package Manager or the Software Center you can launch it in Terminal with:
Immediately a GUI Terminal interface appears and you have just to follow the instruct ions you visualize on your monitor.
Using the arrows and the Enter keys you have to:
1 – Choose the USB device from where you want to recover the data
2 – Select the partition table (usually Intel)
3 – Specify the partition table
4 – Select the right filesystem where the data were stored
5 – Decide if you want to try the data recovering from all the free space
6 – select the directory where you want to store the recovered data. IMPORTANT: do not store the recovered data on the same USB key you are scanning for recovering
7 – Wait till PhotoRec finishes the recover operations.
At the beginning it appeared as a no-solved mystery because in all the many posts I read, there were no effective solutions. On my Ubuntu 10.04 LTS I was no able to use the external hard disk I had connected to the LAN and every time I tried to mount it I only received this message: Unable to mount location – Failed to retrieve share list from server
In few words it was not possible to use the Windows Network and all the people with the same problem (which is specific for the Ubuntu 10.04) suggested to reconfigure Samba but all the configuration and scripts I tried were no effective to let me use the external hard disk.
At the end I found someone who talked about a possible firewall misconfiguration and I tried in many ways to bypass the situation using ufw commands and opening ports and services over the LAN:
$ sudo ufw status
[sudo] password for *****:
To Action From
— —— —-
135,139,445/tcp ALLOW Anywhere (log)
137,138/udp ALLOW Anywhere (log)
Samba ALLOW Anywhere
192.168.0.3 Samba ALLOW 10.0.0.0/8
10.0.0.0/8 ALLOW 192.168.0.3 Samba
Unfortunately, every new permission I granted to Samba on my Firewall was not a real solution but when I tried to stop the Firewall (System –> Administration –> Firewall Configuration) using the default firewall manager, Ubuntu was able to find and work on the external hard disk.
For this reason I made some tests and found this solution:
1 – enter your router settings and find the list of the attached device
2 – find the name and the MAC address of the LAN device you want to connect to your PC
3 – find the menu for the Lan Setup and add an Address Reservation for the above device. Now you are sure that the router will always assign the same address to the device
4 – back to Ubuntu, install and launch Firestarter (for some incomprehensible reasons the default firewall manager is not able to create rules for Samba services and ports)
5 – on Firestarter, go to Preferences —> Policy Editor and click on “Apply policy changes immediately”
6 – try to connect again to Windows Network, obviously (sic) it will not work but then go to Firestarter —> Events and you will notice that the last line is the “missing” external disk which has an “unknown” service
7 – right-click the mouse on this line and “Allow connections from source”. Now the external hard disk is visible from Ubuntu 10.04 LTS and it is possible to work on it!
8 – to be sure that your LAN device will be rightly connected to Ubuntu 10.04 every time you boot up it: go to System –> Preferences –> Startup Applications
9 – add a new Firestarter rule typing the following command: sudo firestarter
Computer networks are sometimes comprised of various OS and while operating a network made up fully of Ubuntu desktop and server computer systems would definitely be enjoyable, some community environments can consist of both Ubuntu and Microsoft Windows systems working together.
If you want to make an Ubuntu shared folder be accessible to Windows XP, run the NTFS configuration tool on the drive.
Don’t forget that it is advisable to have admin rights to do that modification.
then type the following:
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
and in the [global] section add the following line:
usershare proprietor only = false